FDA to Complete “Unfinished Business” of Device Classification & Call for PMAsApril 8, 2009
By Jennifer B. Davis –
The April 9, 2009 Federal Register will contain the official notice of an FDA order requiring manufacturers of 25 types of Class III “preamendments” devices to submit information on such devices, including adverse safety and effectiveness data not already submitted to the agency, by August 7, 2009. The order also applies to manufacturers of devices marketed based on 510(k) determinations of “substantial equivalence” to the 25 identified preamendments devices. FDA warns that failure to comply is a prohibited act, and will cause any affected device to be to be misbranded. The agency also says it “does not anticipate extending the time for submitting the required information,” and “will use its enforcement powers to deter noncompliance.” FDA intends to use the information submitted to decide the final classification for such devices.
A news release posted on April 8, 2009 on the agency’s website calls the order a “first step towards completing the review of Class III device types predating the 1976 law, as was recommended by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) in a January 2009 report to Congress.” The FDA Amendments Act of 2007 ordered GAO to study FDA’s 510(k) process. The GAO report found that the agency’s process for reclassifying or requiring PMAs for class III devices was incomplete, and recommended completion of that task to ensure the most stringent (PMA) review process for high-risk devices.
Section 513 of the FDC Act (21 U.S.C. § 360c), added by the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (“MDA”), requires FDA to classify all devices into one of three risk-based categories: Class I, Class II, or Class III. Devices assigned to Class III, representing the highest risk, must obtain premarket approval from the agency before they can be marketed. 21 U.S.C. § 360e(a). However, under section 515(b)(1) of the Act (21 U.S.C. § 360e(b)(1)), devices initially assigned to Class III, which were marketed prior to the May 28, 1976 enactment of the MDA – so-called “preamendments” devices, do not require submission of a premarket approval application (“PMA”) until after FDA issues a final rule requiring a PMA for that device, or, FDA publishes a final classification placing the device in Class III. In addition, the statute allows devices introduced to the market on or after May 28, 1976, which can be shown to be “substantially equivalent” to a Class III pramendments device, to be marketed through a 510(k) instead of a PMA unless and until FDA calls for a PMA, or finally classifies the preamendments device in Class III.
As of May 1994, there were approximately 149 preamendments devices which FDA had initially classified or proposed to classify in Class III. The agency has since reclassified (into Class I or II), or published a regulation requiring PMA submission for 122 of those devices, leaving 27. The order to be published in the April 9, 2009 Federal Register addresses the following 25 devices. (FDA has already initiated the process for the other two devices.)
1. 21 CFR 868.5610 Membrane lung for long-term pulmonary support.
2. 21 CFR 870.3535 Intra-aortic balloon and control system.
3. 21 CFR 870.3545 Ventricular bypass (assist) device.
4. 21 CFR 870.3600 External pacemaker pulse generator.
5. 21 CFR 870.3610 Implantable pacemaker pulse generator.
6. 21 CFR 870.3680(b) Cardiovascular permanent pacemaker electrode.
7. 21 CFR 870.3700 Pacemaker programmers.
8. 21 CFR 870.3710 Pacemaker repair or replacement material.
9. 21 CFR 870.4360 Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.
10. 21 CFR 870.5200 External cardiac compressor.
11. 21 CFR 870.5225 External counter-pulsating device.
12. 21 CFR 870.5310 Automated external defibrillator.
13. 21 CFR 872.3640(b)(2) Endosseous dental implant (blade form).
14. 21 CFR 872.3960 Mandibular condyle prosthesis (temporary implant).
15. 21 CFR 876.5540(b)(1) Implanted blood access device.
16. 21 CFR 876.5870 Sorbent hemoperfusion system.
17. 21 CFR 882.5800 Cranial electrotherapy stimulator.
18. 21 CFR 882.5940 Electroconvulsive therapy device.
19. 21 CFR 884.5330 Female condom.
20. 21 CFR 888.3070(b)(2) Pedicle screw spinal system (certain uses).
21. 21 CFR 888.3320 Hip joint metal/metal semi-constrained, with a cemented acetabular component, prosthesis.
22. 21 CFR 888.3330 Hip joint metal/metal semi-constrained, with an uncemented acetabular component, prosthesis.
23. 21 CFR 890.5290(b) Shortwave diathermy (certain uses).
24. 21 CFR 890.5525(b) Iontophoresis device (certain uses).
25. 892.1990 Transilluminator for breast evaluation.
Manufacturers of the above-listed devices must, by August 7, submit “a summary of, and citation to, any information known or otherwise available to them respecting the devices, including adverse safety and effectiveness data that has not been submitted under section 519 of the act” (e.g., medical device reports, reports of corrections and removals). Additional details respecting the format and content for such submissions can be found in FDA’s order.